University of Kentucky College of Agriculture

The use of organic trace minerals in poultry diets

2011 INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC FORUM

Evaluation of organic Cu (Bioplex Cu) as a Cu source for chicks.
T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, K.A. Dawson, M. Paul, and M.J. Ford.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate Bioplex Cu (copper proteinate) as an organic copper source for broiler chicks. A total of 336 1-d old male broiler chicks were used and housed in starter cages in an environmentally controlled room for 2wk. Feed and water were supplied on an ad libitum basis. Dietary treatments were: corn-soybean meal basal diet without Cu supplementation or the basal diet with 3 supplemental  levels of Cu (150, 250 and 350 mg/kg) either from Bioplex Cu or from analytical CuSO4·5H2O. All chicks were fed basal diet from d 1 to d 5. At d 6, chicks were weighed individually and randomly assigned to 7 diets such that the average weight across dietary treatments was similar. There were 8 replicate cages of 6 chicks for each dietary treatment. Chicks had free access to treatment diets from d6 to d14. Body weight and feed intake were recorded during this time period. At the end of the trial, 2 birds from each cage were randomly selected and killed with argon gas to collect liver samples for the analysis of Cu. Chicks fed diets with a supplementation of 350 mg/kg Cu from both sources had lower (P < 0.01) feed intake, weight gain and gain to feed ratio compared with those fed basal diet or basal plus 150 mg/kg Cu as sulfate. Liver Cu concentration increased linearly (P < 0.01) as level of Cu in the diet increased. However, the increasing rate of liver Cu concentration was greater for chicks fed Bioplex Cu than those fed copper sulfate. Multiple linear regression of liver Cu concentration on actual Cu consumption of Bioplex Cu and copper sulfate resulted in a following equation: Y = 2.66 X1 + 1.93 X2 – 45.3 (r2 = 0.79, P < 0.05), in which Y represents liver Cu concentration, X1 represents actual consumption of Cu as Bioplex Cu and X2 represents actual consumption of Cu as Cu sulfate. The slope ratio from this equation indicated that the relative bioavailability value of Bioplex Cu was138% compared with reagent-grade Cu sulfate. 

2010 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION ANNUAL MEETING

Effect of organic trace mineral sources on production and egg quality of white egg laying hens.
L.M. Macalintal, A.H. Cantor, T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, A.J. Pescatore, K.A. Dawson, M.J. Ford, W.D. King, and H.D. Gillespie.
The effects of supplementing white laying hens with graded levels of organic and inorganic sources of Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn and Se on egg production and quality were studied. The organic sources used were proteinates of Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn (Bioplex, Alltech, Inc.) and selenium yeast (SelPlex, Alltech, Inc.). Seven treatments consisted of feeding corn-soybean meal diets alone (basal) or supplemented with Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn at 25, 50, or 100% of the NRC (1994) requirements provided by either inorganic salts or organic sources. Selenium was provided at 0.075, 0.15 and 0.3 mg/kg as either sodium selenite or selenium yeast in the diet containing 25, 50 and 100% of the NRC requirements, respectively. At each stage of growth or production, other nutrient levels were adjusted to meet the dietary requirements. Eight replicate groups of 16 chicks at day 1 of age were randomly assigned to each treatment. At 17 weeks of age, pullets were transferred to laying cages using 12 pullets per replicate and the mineral treatments were continued for 28 weeks of production. Egg quality parameters were assayed monthly on samples of six eggs per replicate group. During the 28 weeks of production, overall body weight gain (465 g/hen), feed intake (93.0 g/hen/d) and hen-day egg production rate (85.0%) were not affected by treatments. During Weeks 17-20, hens fed organic minerals at 50% of the NRC requirement had higher egg production (94.2%) than those fed the basal diet (90.3%) or inorganic minerals at the 25% level (90.4%). Average egg weight at 26 wk of production was significantly higher for hens fed organic minerals at the 100% rate compared with all other treatments. Compared with the basal treatment, no improvements in shell breaking strength, % shell and specific gravity were observed due to mineral supplementation.

2010 INTERNATIONAL POULTRY SCIENTIFIC FORUM

Effects of supplementing different forms of copper in broiler diets on the efficacy of phytase.
T. Ao, J. L. Pierce, K. A. Dawson, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, and M. J. Ford.
Studies showed that supplementing 250 mg/kg Cu as sulfate in broiler diets adversely affects retention of P when diets are supplemented with phytase. Two trials were designed to investigate the effects of supplementing 250 mg/kg Cu as sulfate or Cu proteinate (Bioplex® Cu, Alltech Inc.) on the efficacy of enzymatic feed supplements with phytase activity in chicks. In trial 1, chicks were fed a corn-soy low P diet with supplementation of Allzyme SSF® alone or with 250 mg/kg Cu as sulfate or Bioplex® Cu. Seven replicate pens of 22 chicks were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments. Chicks were raised in floor pens for 6 wks. Allzyme SSF® improved (P < 0.01) performance of chicks. The growth rate of chicks given both Allzyme SSF® and 250 mg/kg Cu as sulfate was lower (P < 0.01) than that of chicks given Allzyme SSF® alone. In trial 2, chicks were fed a corn-soy low P diet with pure phytase from fungal source added alone or with 125 or 250 mg/kg Cu as sulfate or 250 mg/kg Cu as Bioplex® Cu. Eight replicate cages of six chicks were randomly assigned to each of five dietary treatments. Chicks were housed in starter cages for 3 wks. At the end of trial, fecal samples were collected for the assay of P retention using Cr2O3 as a marker. Phytase improved (P < 0.01) performance and P retention. Chicks fed diets with 250 mg/kg Cu in either form had lower (P < 0.01) feed intake and weight gain compared with chicks fed phytase alone or plus 125 mg/kg Cu as sulfate. The P retention rate from chicks given 250 mg/kg Cu as sulfate was lower (P < 0.01) than that from chicks supplemented with phytase plus125 mg/kg Cu as sulfate. The results from these trials suggest that supplementing high levels (250 mg/kg) of Cu as sulfate in broiler diets containing phytase had detrimental effect on the efficacy of phytase, which could be overcome by using Cu proteinate.

Influence of organic trace mineral sources on production and egg quality of brown egg laying hens.
L.M. Macalintal, A.H. Cantor, T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, A.J. Pescatore, K.A. Dawson, M.J. Ford, and H.D. Gillespie.
An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of feeding graded levels of organic and inorganic sources of Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn and Se on egg production and quality. The organic forms used were proteinates of Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn (Bioplex®, Alltech, Inc.) and selenium yeast (Sel-Plex®,Alltech, Inc.). The seven treatments consisted of feeding corn-soybean meal diets alone (control) and supplemented with Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn at 25, 50 or 100 per cent of the NRC (1994) requirements provided by either inorganic salts or organic sources. Selenium was provided at 0.075, 0.15 and 0.3 mg/kg as either sodium selenite or selenium yeast in diets containing 25, 50 and 100 per cent of the NRC requirements, respectively. The levels of other nutrients were adjusted to meet the requirements for each stage of growth or production. Eight replicate groups of 16 chicks, 1 day of age, were randomly assigned to each treatment. At 16 weeks of age pullets were transferred to laying cages using 12 pullets per replicate and the mineral treatments were continued for 28 weeks of production. Body weight, feed intake, egg production rate, eggshell breaking strength, specific gravity, and per cent shell were not affected by dietary treatments. Feeding both organic and inorganic Se sources increased egg Se concentration, compared with the control treatment. Egg Se concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.001) for hens fed selenium yeast compared with those fed inorganic sodium selenite (0.15 vs. 0.12 μg/g fresh weight). The results show that use of organic Se is useful in enhancing the Se concentration of eggs. 

2009 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION ANNUAL MEETINGEffects of supplementing different levels and sources of Zn in corn-soybean meal diet on the performance and tissue mineral status of broiler chicks.
T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, A.J. Pescatore, A.C. Cantor, K.A. Dawson, and M.J. Ford.
Studies in our lab demonstrated that supplementing 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® (a chelated Zn proteinate) in corn-soybean meal diet is equivalent to supplementing 40 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate in terms of growth performance and tissue mineral status of chicks. This study was to compare the effects of supplementing different levels of Zn in corn-soybean meal diet provided as zinc sulfate or Bioplex Zn® on the performance and tibia Zn content of chicks during 42d period. Chicks were reared in floor pens in an environmentally controlled room and were given ad libitium access to feed and water. Dietary treatments included: 1) corn-soy control diet without addition of Zn; 2) control + 40 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate; 3) control + 80 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate; 4) control + 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn®; 5) control + 24 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn®. A total of 800 chicks were randomly assigned to each of five dietary treatments with eight replicate pens of 20 chicks. In first two week period, dietary supplementation of 24 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® significantly increased (P<0.01) weight gain of chicks compared with other treatment groups. The gain to feed ratio of chicks fed diet containing 24 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® was higher (P=0.057) than chicks fed other treatment diets except those fed diet including 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn®. In entire six week growing period, no difference was found among all treatment groups in terms of growth performance. The chicks fed corn-soy control diet had significantly lower (P<0.01) tibia Zn content than those fed other treatment diets. The chicks fed diet with a supplementation of 80 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate had significantly higher (P<0.01) tibia Zn content than those fed other treatment diets except those fed diet including 40 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate. These results indicate that supplementing 24 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in corn-soy diet may have better growth promoting effects for broiler chicks during starter period than supplementing 80 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate.

2009 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION ANNUAL MEETING

Effects of supplementing different levels and sources of Zn in corn-soybean meal diet on the performance and tissue mineral status of broiler chicks.
T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, A.J. Pescatore, A.C. Cantor, K.A. Dawson, and M.J. Ford.
Studies in our lab demonstrated that supplementing 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® (a chelated Zn proteinate) in corn-soybean meal diet is equivalent to supplementing 40 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate in terms of growth performance and tissue mineral status of chicks. This study was to compare the effects of supplementing different levels of Zn in corn-soybean meal diet provided as zinc sulfate or Bioplex Zn® on the performance and tibia Zn content of chicks during 42d period. Chicks were reared in floor pens in an environmentally controlled room and were given ad libitium access to feed and water. Dietary treatments included: 1) corn-soy control diet without addition of Zn; 2) control + 40 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate; 3) control + 80 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate; 4) control + 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn®; 5) control + 24 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn®. A total of 800 chicks was randomly assigned to each of five dietary treatments with eight replicate pens of 20 chicks. In first two week period, dietary supplementation of 24 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® significantly increased (P<0.01) weight gain of chicks compared with other treatment groups. The gain to feed ratio of chicks fed diet containing 24 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® was higher (P=0.057) than chicks fed other treatment diets except those fed diet including 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn®. In entire six week growing period, no difference was found among all treatment groups in terms of growth performance. The chicks fed corn-soy control diet had significantly lower (P<0.01) tibia Zn content than those fed other treatment diets. The chicks fed diet with a supplementation of 80 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate had significantly higher (P<0.01) tibia Zn content than those fed other treatment diets except those fed diet including 40 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate. These results indicate that supplementing 24 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in corn-soy diet may have better growth promoting effects for broiler chicks during starter period than supplementing 80 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate. 

2009 INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC FORUM

Effects of feeding reduced levels of organic minerals (Bioplex®) on the development of white layer pullets.
T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, K.A. Dawson, and M.J. Ford.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding reduced levels of trace mineral in proteinate form (Bioplex®, Alltech, Inc.) on white layer pullet development. Eight replicate groups of 16 replacement pullets, 1-day of age, were randomly assigned to each of five dietary treatments. Pullets were housed in cages and given ad libitum access to feed and water. Treatments consisted of feeding corn-soybean meal based starter and grower diets alone (control), supplemented with Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn at 25, 50 or 100 per cent of the NRC (1994) requirements in the form of proteinates or 100 per cent of the NRC requirements in the form of inorganic salts. The excreta samples were collected at week 15 of bird age. At 17 wk of age, the trial was ended. The birds were weighed individually for the measurement of uniformity. A total of 10 birds from each treatment were randomly selected for collection of liver and tibia samples. The concentration of Cu, Mn and Zn in the tissue and excreta samples was analyzed. There were no differences among all dietary treatments in body weight, feed intake, uniformity and liver mineral content. The tibias and excreta samples from birds fed control diet with no mineral supplementation had significantly lower (P<0.01) Zn and Mn concentration than those from birds fed other diets. The tibias from birds fed 100% NRC level of supplementation as Bioplex® had higher (P<0.01) Mn concentration than those from birds fed 25% NRC level of supplementation as Bioplex®. The excreta samples from birds fed 25% level of supplementation as Bioplex® had lower (P<0.01) Zn and Mn concentration than those from the birds fed other diets except control diet. The results indicate that 25% NRC level of supplementation as Bioplex® in pullet diets can reduce the mineral excretion, but has no negative influence on performance and tissue mineral concentration in comparison with 100% NRC level of supplementation as inorganic salts.

2008 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION ANNUAL MEETING

Effects of feeding reduced levels of trace mineral proteinates (Bioplex®) to brown layer pullets during development.
T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, K.A. Dawson, and M.J. Ford.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding reduced levels of trace mineral proteinates (Bioplex®, Alltech, Inc.) on pullet growth and development. Eight replicate groups of 16 replacement pullets, 1-day of age, were assigned to each of 5 dietary treatments using a randomized complete block experimental design. Pullets were housed in cages and given ad libitum access to feed and tap water. Treatments consisted of feeding corn- and soybean meal-based starter and grower diets alone (control), supplemented with Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn at 25, 50 or 100 per cent of the NRC (1994) requirements in the form of proteinates or 100% of the NRC requirements in the form of inorganic salts. Body weight and feed consumption were measured every 4 weeks. At 16 wk of age, the trial was ended. The birds were weighed individually for the measurement of uniformity. Two birds from each cage with a total of 10 birds from each treatment were randomly selected and euthanized for collection of liver, tibia, and femur samples for the analysis of Cu, Mn and Zn. There were no differences among all dietary treatments in body weight, feed intake, uniformity, and liver mineral content. Tibias and femurs from birds fed control diet with no mineral supplementation had significantly lower (P < 0.01) Zn and Mn concentrations than those from birds fed other treatment diets. Tibias and femurs from birds fed the 100% level of supplementation as Bioplex® had the highest Zn concentration among all treatment groups. Tibias and femurs from birds fed the 25% level of supplementation as the proteinates had the same mineral concentration as those from the birds fed 100% level of supplementation as inorganic salts. The results from this trial indicate that 25% NRC level of supplementation as the proteinates in pullet diets has no negative influence on performance and tissue mineral concentration in comparison with 100% NRC level of supplementation as inorganic salts.

2008 INTERNATIONAL POULTRY SCIENTIFIC FORUM

Requirement of Zn provided as organic Zn for broiler chicks.
T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, A.J. Pescatore, M.J. Ford, A.H. Cantor, K.A. Dawson, and M. Paul.
Studies in our lab demonstrated that optimal growth performance of chicks in starter phase can be reached by supplementing 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® (a chelated Zn proteinate) in corn-soy basal diet. This study was to investigate the dietary supplemental level of 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® on the performance of broiler chicks in entire period (starter and grower). One-day-old broiler chicks were housed in floor pens with new litter in an environmentally controlled room for 42d. Birds were given ad libitium access to feed and water. Dietary treatments included: 1) corn-soy diet (control) without addition of Zn in entire period; 2) control + 40 ppm Zn  (NRC level) as zinc sulfate in entire period; 3) control + 12 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate in entire period; 4) control + 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in starter phase + no Zn in grower phase; 5) control + 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in entire period; 6) control + 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in starter phase + 24 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in grower phase. A total of 660 chicks was randomly assigned to each of six dietary treatments with five replicate pens of 22 chicks. Chicks fed dietary treatments 1), 3) and 4) showed Zn deficiency symptom with lower (P<0.01) feed intake, weight gain and tibia Zn content comparing with other treatment groups. Dietary supplementation of 40 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate had the same effects on feed intake, weight gain and tibia Zn content of chicks as dietary supplementation of 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in entire period. Chicks fed diet supplemented with 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in starter phase and 24 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in grower phase had the same feed intake and weight gain, but higher (P<0.01) tibia Zn content comparing with chicks fed diet supplemented with 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in entire phase. These results indicate that the supplemental level of 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in corn-soy diet has the same effects on performance and tibia Zn content of broiler chicks as supplemental level of 40 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate.

Evaluation of organic Mn (Bioplex Mn®) as a Mn source for chicks.
T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, A.J. Pescatore, M.J. Ford, A.H. Cantor, K.A. Dawson, and M. Paul.
A study was conducted to evaluate Bioplex Mn® (a chelated Mn proteinate) as an organic manganese source for broiler chicks. Corn-soybean meal diet without Mn supplementation, containing 26 mg/kg Mn, was used as a basal diet. One day-old male broiler chicks were housed in starter cages with plastic covered feeders in an environmentally controlled room for 3wk. Feed and water were supplied on an ad libitum basis. Treatments consisted of feeding the basal diet alone or with three supplemental levels of Mn (1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg) either from Bioplex Mn® or from analytical MnSO4•H2O. Eight replicate cages of six chicks were randomly assigned to each of seven dietary treatments. Manganese supplementation from both sources linearly decreased (P<0.01) weight gain and feed intake of chicks and linearly increased (P<0.01) manganese concentration in tibia, liver and kidney. Slope-ratio analysis regressing weight gain and tissue Mn concentration on Mn intake indicated the relative bioavailability value of Bioplex Mn® compared with manganese sulfate were 200% and 139% respectively.

Trace mineral concentrations in laying hen manure as affected by dietary organic and inorganic mineral supplements.
A.H. Cantor, J.L. Pierce, A.J. Pescatore, M.J. Ford, T. Ao, and H.D. Gillespie.
The effect of varying levels and sources (organic vs. inorganic) of trace mineral supplements on trace mineral concentrations in manure was studied using a commercial strain of brown shell laying hen (Hy-Line Brown). Eight replicate groups of 16 replacement pullets, 2 wk of age, were assigned to each of six dietary treatments, using a randomized block experimental design. Pullets were housed in cages and given ad libitum access to feed and tap water. Trace mineral mixes that contained Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn at 25, 50 or 100 per cent of the NRC (1994) requirements in the form of inorganic salts or proteinates (Bioplex®, Alltech, Inc.) were added to corn-soybean meal-based grower and layer diets in a 3 X 2 factorial arrangement of treatments . At 16 wk of age, the number of pullets was reduced to 12 per replicate, the pullets were transferred to layer cages (2 per cage) and switched to layer diets, and the photostimulation program was initiated. At 29 wk of age, six hens per treatment were placed in metabolism cages and manure was collected for 48 hours. Manure samples were dried, ground and analyzed for Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn by inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometry. Manure concentrations of Cu, Mn and Zn were significantly increased by the 100% level of supplementation (vs. 25 and 50%) and were unaffected by the source of minerals. Manure Fe levels were unaffected by dietary treatments. Respective concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in manure (DM basis) were 39, 813, 145 and 230 mg/kg for hens supplemented with the 100% level and 28, 747, 94 and 165 mg/kg for hens supplemented with the 25% level of trace minerals. The results indicate the dietary level, but not the source, of the trace minerals used with practical diets influences the concentrations of trace minerals in the manure.

2007 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION ANNUAL MEETING

Investigation of antagonism and absorption of zinc and copper when different forms of minerals were fed to chicks.
T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, R. Power, A.J. Pescatore, K.A. Dawson, A.H. Cantor, M.J. Ford, and B.L. Shafer.
The aim of this study was to investigate the antagonism of Zn and Cu when organic or inorganic forms of these minerals were fed to chicks. A practical corn-soybean meal diet without Cu and Zn supplementation, containing 31 mg Zn /kg diet and 5.4 mg Cu /kg diet, was used as a basal diet. Bioplex Zn® (a chelated Zn proteinate) and Bioplex Cu® (a chelated Cu proteinate) were used as the organic sources. Reagent grade sulfate salts provided the inorganic sources of Zn and Cu. Supplements provided 20 ppm Zn and 8 ppm Cu. Ten groups of six day-old male broilers were assigned to each of seven treatments. Tap water with no detectable Zn and Cu (<0.001 ppm) and feed were supplied on an ad libitum basis during the 3 wk trial. Treatments consisted of the following dietary supplementation: 1) none, 2) inorganic Cu, 3) inorganic Zn, 4) inorganic Zn + inorganic Cu, 5) inorganic Zn + Bioplex Cu, 6) Bioplex Zn + inorganic Cu, and 7) Bioplex Zn + Bioplex Cu. The luminal mucus layer of the chick’s duodenum was separated from the mucosa by lling the lumen with agar to observe the Zn and Cu uptake of mucus in the agar cast and the mucosa. Weight gain and feed intake were increased by Cu (P<0.01) and were further increased by Zn or Zn + Cu (P<0.01). Gain to feed ratio was decreased (P<0.01) by Zn + Cu provided as inorganic forms but not as the organic forms, compared with Zn alone. Zinc supplementation increased (P<0.01) tibia and plasma Zn concentrations. Tibia Zn and Cu levels were higher (P<0.01) for the organic Zn + Cu treatment than for the inorganic Zn + Cu treatment. The Cu content in the mucosa of chicks fed both organic Zn and Cu was signicantly higher (P<0.01) than that of chicks given no supplementation or both inorganic Zn and Cu. This suggests that the Bioplex form of Cu is more efficiently absorbed from the lumen and that the antagonism between Zn and Cu can be avoided through using proteinated  forms of these minerals.