University of Kentucky College of Agriculture

Research - DDGS in poultry diets

2011 INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC FORUM

Effect of distillers dried grains with solubles and an enzyme supplement on performance and egg quality of brown egg layers thorugh 60 weeks of egg production.
P. Rossi, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, L.M. Macalintal, M.J. Ford, W.D. King and H.D. Gillespie.
The effects of feeding diets containing 15 or 23% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without a naturally occurring enzyme complex (Allzyme SSF, Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, KY,) on egg production parameters were evaluated in brown shell hens during 60 wk of production. At 17 wk of age, 420 Hy-Line Brown hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 7 replicate groups of 12 hens each. Dietary treatments were 1) positive control (corn-soybean meal) 2) 15% DDGS, 3) 15% DDGS + Allzyme SSF, 4) 23% DDGS, and 5) 23% DDGS + Allzyme SSF. Compared with the control diet, DDGS diets had reduced levels of ME (2800 vs. 2877 Kcal/kg), Ca (4.1 vs. 4.2%) and available P (0.17% for 15% DDGS and 0.2% for 23% DDGS vs. 0.29%). Feed intake was significantly (SSF to 15% DDGS diets increased HDP. The depression in egg weight due to both levels of DDGS was corrected by Allzyme SSF. Haugh unit values were increased by DDGS. The reduction in shell weight, percent shell, specific gravity and shell breaking strength due to DDGS were partially alleviated by Allzyme SSF. Feeding 15 or 23% DDGS with or without enzymes decreased yolk lightness (L*), while feeding 23% DDGS increased yolk redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values, compared with the 15% DDGS and control diets. These results indicate that negative effects of feeding high levels of DDGS can be partially overcome by including Allzyme SSF in the diet.

The use of distillers dried grains with solubles in post peak diets for laying hens.
A.J. Pescatore, P. Rossi, A.H. Cantor, J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, L. M. Macalintal, M. J. Ford, W. D. King, and H. D. Gillespie.
Previous research in our laboratory indicated that the inclusion of distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS) in laying hen diets at levels up to 23% negatively impacted egg size and other egg parameters when fed during the entire production cycle. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of feeding DDGS to laying hens during postpeak egg production. The effects of diets containing 15 or 23% DDGS with and without a naturally occurring enzyme complex (Allzyme SSF, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) on performance and egg qualityof laying hens was evaluated during Week 44 to 60 of the production cycle. In each of 2 experiments 420 hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 7 replicate groups of 12 hens each. Hy-Line W-36 hens were used in Experiment 1, while Hy-Line Brown hens were used in Experiment 2. Treatments consisted of feeding the following diets: 1)positive control (corn-soybean meal), 2) 15% DDGS, 3) 15% DDGS + enzymes, 4) 23% DDGS, and 5) 23% DDGS + enzymes. Diets containing DDGS had reduced levels of ME (2800 vs. 2877 Kcal/kg), Ca (4.1 vs.4.2%) and available P (0.17% for 15% DDGS or 0.2% for 23% DDGS vs. 0.29%), compared with the control diet. There were no significant effects of treatments on egg production, feed intake or feed conversion in either experiment. In Experiment 2, there was a significant decreasein percent shell and specific gravity for the brown hens fed diets with 15 or 23% DDGS. In that experiment, the addition of Allzyme SSF to the DDGS diets improved shell quality to the level of the control diet. No other significant effects on egg quality were observed in the 2 experiments. Eggs from hens fed 15 and 23% DDGS with or without enzymes has lower yolk lightness (L*) compared with eggs from the control treatment. Eggs from hens fed 23% DDGS had higher yolk redness (a*) and yellowness (*) values compared with those from the 15% DDGS and control treatments, indicating a darker yolk color. The current studies suggest that DDGS can be included in the post-peak production diets up to 23% with minimal effects on performance or egg quality

Effect of distillers dried grains with solubles and an enzyme supplement on performance and egg quality of egg layers.
P. Rossi, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, L.M. Macalintal, M J. Ford, W.D. King, and H.D. Gillespie.
The effects of diets containing 15 or 23% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with and without a naturally occurring enzyme complex (Allzyme SSF, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) on performance and egg quality of laying hens was evaluated during 60 weeks of production. At 17 weeks of age, 420 Hy-Line W-36 hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 7 replicate groups of 12 hens each. Treatments consisted of feeding the following diets: 1) positive control (corn-soybean meal), 2) 15% DDGS, 3)15% DDGS + enzymes, 4) 23% DDGS, and 5) 23% DDGS + enzymes. Diets containing DDGS had reduced levels of ME (2800 vs. 2877 kcal/kg), Ca (4.1 vs. 4.2%) and available P (0.17% for 15% DDGS or 0.2% for 23% DDGS vs. 0.29%), compared with the control diet. Six eggs were randomly collected from each replicate every 4 weeks to determine egg quality. Feed intake was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by DDGS. Hen-day egg production was lower for DDGS +enzymes during the 60 wk production period. There was no effect of treatments on feed efficiency. Egg weight, shell weight, percent shell and albumen weight were decreased by 23% DDGS compared with the 15% inclusion rate. Eggs from hens fed 15 or 23% DDGS ± enzymes, had lower yolk lightness (L*) vs. hens fed the control diet. Hens fed 23% DDGS had higher yolk redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values vs. hens fed 15% DDGS or the control diet, indicating a darker yolk color. The current study suggests that DDGS can be included in the diet up to 15% with minimal effects on performance and egg quality and can be used to improve yolk color. The addition of 23% DDGS to the diet negatively impacted some of the production parameters.

2010 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION ANNUAL MEETING

Effect of distillers dried grains with solubles and an enzyme supplement on performance and egg quality of brown egg layers.
A.J. Pescatore, P. Rossi, A.H. Cantor, J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, L.M. Macalintal, M.J. Ford, W.D. King, and H.D. Gillespie.
Effects of diets containing 15 or 23% distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS) with and without a naturally occurring enzyme complex (Allzyme SSF, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY)was evaluated in brown egg laying hens. Egg production and egg quality was evaluated during 36 wk of production. At 17 wk of age, 420 Hy-Line Brown hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 7 replicate groups of 12 hens each. Treatments consisted of feeding: 1) positive control (corn-soybean meal) formulated to be adequate in all nutrients 2) 15% DDGS, 3) 15% DDGS + enzymes, 4) 23% DDGS, and 5) 23% DDGS + enzymes. Diets containing DDGS had reduced levels of ME (2800 vs. 2877 Kcal/kg), Ca (4.1 vs. 4.2%) and available P (0.17% for 15% DDGS or 0.2% for 23% DDGS vs. 0.29%), compared with the control diet. Six eggs were collected from each replicate every 4 wk to determine egg quality. Feed intake was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by DDGS during wks 5–8 and 17–20. Dietary treatment did not affect feed conversion. Allzyme SSF increased HDP during wks 21–24. Egg weight at wk 20 and yolk weight at wk 20 were decreased by DDGS. Percent yolk was not significantly affected by the addition of DDGS. The diet with 15% DDGS + enzyme increased albumen wt at Week 20. The diet with 23% DDGS + enzyme increased percent shell at wk 36 and shell breaking strength at wks 4, 32 and 36. Haugh unit values were significantly increased by DDGS at wks 16 and 28. Shell weight, percent shell, specific gravity and shell breaking strength were initially lower for DDGS diets at 4 wks of production. By 36 wks the addition of Allzyme SSF to the DDGS diets improved shell weight, percent shell, specific gravity and shell breaking strength. Hens fed 15 or 23% DDGS, +/− enzymes, had lower yolk lightness (L*). Hens fed 23% DDGS had higher yolk redness (a*) and yolk yellowness (b*) values vs. hens fed 15% DDGS or control diet. This study suggests that DDGS could be included to the diet up to 23% without negative effects on feed efficiency and can be used to improve yolk color. Using Allzyme SSF in DDGS diets increase shell quality and albumen weight.

Effect of distillers dried grains with solubles and enzyme supplementation on production performance and egg quality of laying hens through 36 weeks of egg production.
P. Rossi, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, L.M. Macalintal, M.J. Ford, W.D. King, and H.D. Gillespie.
The effects of diets containing 15 or 23% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with and without a naturally occurring enzyme complex (Allzyme SSF, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) on performance and egg quality of laying hens was evaluated during 36 weeks of production. At 17 weeks of age, 420 Hy-Line W-36 hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 7 replicate groups of 12 hens each. Treatments consisted of feeding the following diets: 1) positive control (corn-soybean meal), 2) 15% DDGS, 3) 15% DDGS + enzymes, 4) 23% DDGS, and 5) 23% DDGS + enzymes. Diets containing DDGS had reduced levels of ME (2800 vs. 2877 Kcal/kg), Ca (4.1 vs. 4.2%) and available P (0.17% for 15% DDGS or 0.2% for 23% DDGS vs. 0.29%), compared with the control diet. Six eggs were randomly collected from each replicate every 4 weeks to determine egg quality. Feed intake was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by DDGS during wk 9–12, 17–20 and 25–28. During the 36 weeks of production Allzyme SSF reduced feed intake by 2.6 g/hen/d. Hen-day production was lower for DDGS + enzymes during wk 29–32. There was no effect of treatments on feed efficiency. Egg weight at wk 8, 12, 16 and 20 and shell weight at wk 12 were decreased by 23% DDGS. The diet with 15% DDGS + enzymes increased yolk weight at wk 12 and 16 and % yolk at wk 16. Albumen weight was significantly increased by 15% DDGS at wk 8 and 16. Hens fed 15 or 23% DDGS +/− enzymes, had lower yolk lightness (L*) vs. hens fed the control diet. Hens fed 23% DDGS had higher yolk redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values vs. hens fed 15% DDGS or the control diet, indicating a darker yolk color. The current study suggests that DDGS can be included in the diet up to 23% with minimal effects on performance and egg quality and can be used to improve yolk color. Using Allzyme SSF in DDGS diets with lower nutrient density can reduce feed intake. Feeding diets with 15% DDGS plus Allzyme SSF increased yolk weight and percent yolk.

2010 INTERNATIONAL POULTRY SCIENTIFIC FORUM

Effect of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and enzyme supplementation on egg quality and yolk color.
P. Rossi, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, L M. Macalintal, M.J. Ford, W.D. King III, and H.D. Gillespie.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of diets containing 15 or 23% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with and without a naturally occurring enzyme complex (Allzyme SSF®, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) on egg quality and yolk color. A total of 420 hens Hy-Line W-36 egg layers were randomly assigned to five treatments with seven replicate groups of 12 hens each. Treatments consisted of the following diets:1) positive control (corn-soybean meal) 2) 15% DDGS, 3) 23% DDGS, 4) 15% DDGS + enzymes, and 5) 23% DDGS + enzymes. The four diets with DDGS had reduced levels of ME (2800 vs. 2877 Kcal/kg), calcium (4.1 vs. 4.2 %) and available phosphorus (0.17% for diets 15% DDGS or 0.2% for diets 23% DDGS vs. 0.29% for the control diet). Egg production was monitored for 24 weeks. Six eggs were collected randomly from each replicate every 4 weeks to determine egg quality. Egg production, percent shell, shell breaking strength or Haugh units were not significantly affected by the addition of 15 or 23 % DDGS to the diet. Egg weights were significantly depressed with the addition of 23% DDGS to the diet. The addition of enzyme to the 15% DDGS diet significantly increased yolk weight at 12 and 16 weeks of production. Yolk color was impacted by the addition of DDGS to the diet. Hens fed 15 or 23% DDGS, with or without enzymes, had lower yolk lightness (L*) compared with eggs from hens fed the control diet. Eggs from hens fed the control diet had lowest yolk yellowness (b*) score compared with those from other treatments. Hens fed 23% DDGS had higher redness (a*) values compared with those fed 15% DDGS and control, indicating a darker yolk color. The current study suggests that DDGS is a useful feed ingredient for laying hens. It could be included to the diet up to 23% without negative effects on egg quality. The addition of DDGS to the diets impacted yolk color and may be useful in specialty markets. Addition of Allzyme SSF® in DDGS diets with lower nutrient density had no effect on egg quality, suggesting that higher DDGS inclusion levels or lower levels of ME, Ca and available P should be evaluated in the future. 

Effect of the addition of distillers dried grains with soluble and an enzyme supplement to diets for brown egg layers on egg quality and yolk color.
A.J. Pescatore, P. Rossi, A.H. Cantor, J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, L.M. Macalintal, M.J. Ford, W.D. King, III, and H. D. Gillespie.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of diets containing 15 or 23% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with and without a naturally occurring enzyme complex (Allzyme SSF®, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) on quality and yolk color of brown shelled eggs. A total of 420 hens Hy-Line Brown egg layers were randomly assigned to five treatments with seven replicate groups of 12 hens each. Dietary treatments consisted of feeding the following diets:1) positive control (corn-soybean meal) formulated to be adequate in all nutrients 2) 15% DDGS, 3) 23% DDGS, 4) 15% DDGS + enzymes, and 5) 23% DDGS + enzymes. The four diets with DDGS had reduced levels of ME (2800 vs. 2877 Kcal/kg), calcium (4.1 vs. 4.2%) and available phosphorus (0.17% for diets 15% DDGS or 0.2% for diets 23% DDGS vs. 0.29% for the control diet). Egg production was monitored for 24 weeks. Six eggs were collected randomly from each replicate every 4 weeks to determine egg quality. Egg production, percent shell or shell breaking strength were not significantly affected by the addition of 15 or 23 % DDGS to the diet. Egg weight, yolk weight and albumen weight were depressed by the inclusion of DDGS in the diet. At 20 weeks of production there was no difference in albumen weight between the control and the 15% DDGS diet with Allzyme SSF®. At 16 weeks of production Haugh units were lower for the control treatment compared to the DDGS treatments. Yolk color was impacted by the addition of DDGS to the diet. Hens fed 15 or 23% DDGS, with or without enzymes, had lower yolk lightness (L*) compared with eggs from hens fed the control diet. Eggs from hens fed the control diet had lowest yolk yellowness (b*) score compared with those from other treatments. Hens fed 23% DDGS had higher redness (a*) values compared with those fed 15% DDGS and control, indicating a darker yolk color. The depression of egg weight with the inclusion of DDGS suggests it may be a useful tool to control egg size in brown egg layers. The addition of DDGS to the diets impacted yolk color and may be useful in specialty markets.

2009 INTERNATIONAL POULTRY SCIENTIFIC FORUM

Chicken selenoprotein P response to viral infection as influenced by dietary selenium source.
J. Read-Snyder, F.W. Edens, C.M. Ashwell, A. Cantor, and A. Pescatore.
Selenium (Se), an essential trace element, functions in the form of selenoproteins, and selenoprotein P (SelP) plays a role in Se transport, detoxification and antioxidant defense. Avian reovirus (ARV) infection can induce inflammatory responses in which oxidative activity is elevated. Se has an antiviral property against RNA viruses such as ARV. Thus, it is important to know how Se sources influence the expression of SelP in different tissues. Cobb 500 broiler breeder eggs were hatched and chicks were placed into two isolation rooms in brooder batteries and were given parental diets [isocaloric Torula yeast diets consisting either 1) no selenium (less than 0.02 ppm), 2) Sel-Plex (organic selenium {Alltech, Nicholasville, KY} 0.3 ppm) or 3) sodium selenite(0.3 ppm)]. Hatchlings were placed in three dietary treatments in either Control or ARV-Infected groups (30 per group). AVR-Infected groups were given orally ARV-CU98 (10^4.2 pfu/chick) and Control chicks were given sterile water. At 7, 14, and 21 days of age, five chicks per treatment group were killed and 500 mg of brain, thymus, pancreas, bursa of Fabricius, and liver were dissected and stored in RNALater at -20°C. Total RNA was extracted and subjected to real-time PCR assays developed for chicken SelP and 18s rRNA. Changes in gene expression were determined by the delta-delta-Ct method. The effects of treatment were determined by ANOVA. The individual differences in Ct ratio among different ages/diets/virus were significantly different (p<0.05). Overall, Se increased SelP expression regardless of source. In liver and brain, SelP expression decreased with age. SelP peaked at 14d in the pancreas, but the bursa SelP expression was lowest at 14d. Generally, there was a transitory increase in SelP expression at 7d in ARV-infected birds followed by decreasing SelP expression. Expression of SelP can be modified by viral infection regardless of Se source. 

2008 INTERNATIONAL POULTRY SCIENTIFIC FORUM

Ammonia release and nutrient content of laying hen manure as affected by distillers dried grains with solubles and enzyme supplementation.
A.J. Pescatore, A. Singh, R.S. Gates, A. H. Cantor, J.L. Pierce, K.A. Dawson, T. Ao, and M.J. Ford.
The effects of using distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with and without enzyme supplementation in laying hen diets on the nutrient content and ammonia release of manure was evaluated. Hens were fed one of five diets: 1) corn-soybean meal diet (16% CP, 2850 Kcal/kg ME); 2) corn-soybean meal diet with 25% DDGS (16% CP, 2850 Kcal/kg); 3) Diet 2 plus 0.1% enzyme preparation (Allzyme DDGS®, Alltech Inc.); 4) low energy corn-soybean mean diet with 25% DDGS (16% CP, 2550 Kcal/kg ME); and 5) Diet 4 plus 0.1% enzyme preparation. Manure samples were collected from eight groups of six hens for each of the dietary treatments. An equilibrium flux chamber technique was used to determine ammonia gas release from the manure. Manure samples were analyzed for pH, moisture content and percent N, P and K. There was no effect of treatments on moisture content or pH. Ammonia release was highest for hens fed the corn-soybean meal diet (Diet 1) and lowest for those fed the low energy DDGS diet (Diet 4). Total ammoniacal nitrogen content for all of the DDGS diets was higher than for the corn-soybean meal diet. Manure from hens fed the DDGS diets had lower P and K content than that from hens fed the corn-soybean diet. Total nitrogen content was lowest for manure from hens fed diets supplemented with the Allzyme DDGS® enzyme preparation (Diets 3 and 5). The results indicate that inclusion of DDGS and enzymes in laying hen diets can affect ammonia release and nutrient content of the manure.